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Learning Goal: I’m working on a psychology multi-part question and need an explanation and answer to help me learn.Week 8 Discussion: Cyber-Surveillance and Civil RightsFollowing the terrorist attacks of 9/11, the Patriot Act was passed in the United States to provide police and government agencies greater powers in the areas of surveillance, search, and seizure. The Patriot Act amends several federal statutes and legal definitions and expands domestic intelligence-gathering authority. Many people have argued that the broadening of police power violates the fundamental civil right to privacy. Others have argued that the Patriot Act does not violate the right to privacy. Others still argue that the Patriot Act is not stringent enough based on the fact that U.S. citizens, who are under the law treated differently from foreign visitors, also have committed terrorist attacks.For this Discussion, consider whether or not cyber-surveillance utilized by the government based on the Patriot Act violates individual civil rights.Post by Day 4 of Week 8An explanation of whether or not cyber-surveillance utilized by the government based on the Patriot Act violates individual civil rights. Include in your argument whether national security should or should not supersede individual civil rights.Respond by Day 6 of Week 8 to least two of your colleagues’ postsTry to choose a colleague who chose a different stance than you. Expand on his or her post by offering whether you can see his or her point of view, even if you disagree. Be respectful in your response.Return to this Discussion in a few days to read the responses to your initial posting. Note what you have learned and/or any insights you have gained as a result of reading the comments your colleagues made.Submission and Grading InformationGrading CriteriaTo access your rubric:Week 8 Discussion RubricPost by Day 4 of Week 8 and Respond by Day 6 of Week 8To Participate in this Discussion:Week 8 DiscussionWeek 8 Assignment: Cyber-SurveillanceAdvances in technology are a double-edged sword in criminal justice. On one hand, new technologies can help criminal justice practitioners monitor and gain important information about suspects to prevent and solve deadly crimes. On the other hand, this type of surveillance can result in collateral damage when the privacy of innocent, law-abiding citizens is violated.For this Assignment, consider how surveillance is used to monitor Internet activity. Think about the conflict between surveillance for public safety and violation of privacy. Does the end justify the means? The Assignment:Use the Walden Library and the Internet to find examples of surveillance systems that focus on technology and the Internet.Using the Walden Writing Center APA Course Paper Template, write a 3- to 5-page paper in which you do the following:
Describe how our day-to-day uses of the Internet are subject to surveillance.
Explain whether such surveillance measures are justified by claims that they are necessary for tackling cybercrime.
Explain whether citizens can trust states when it comes to citizen privacy.
Explain why the regulation of privacy-enhancing technologies such as encryption is so difficult to address.
Explain whether it is possible to meet the demands and needs of all social constituencies at the same time.
Support your Assignment with specific references to all resources used in its preparation. You are to provide a reference list for all resources, including those in the Learning Resources for this course.Submit by Day 7 of Week 8Submission and Grading InformationTo submit your completed Assignment for review and grading, do the following:
Please save your Assignment using the naming convention
“WK8Assgn+lastname+firstinitial.(extension)” as the name.
Click the Week 8 Assignment Rubric to review the Grading Criteria for the Assignment.
Click the Week 8 Assignment link. You will also be able to “View Rubric” for grading
criteria from this area.
Next, from the Attach File area, click the Browse My Computer button. Find the document
you saved as “WK8Assgn+lastname+firstinitial.(extension)” and click Open.
If applicable: From the Plagiarism Tools area, click the checkbox for I agree to submit my
paper(s) to the Global Reference Database.
Click the Submit button to complete your submission.
Grading CriteriaTo access your rubric:Week 8 Assignment RubricCheck Your Assignment Draft for AuthenticityTo check your Assignment draft for authenticity:Submit your Week 8 Assignment draft and review the originality report.Submit Your Assignment by Day 7 of Week 8To submit your Assignment:Week 8 AssignmentThere is no private life which has not been determined by a wider public life.
—George Eliot, Felix Holt, the RadicalDo you ever wonder who has access to your personal online communications? In the name of national interests, government agencies have increased their power and capabilities to monitor online activities. They have the ability to find out what keywords you have searched online, the contents of your e-mails and social media posts, your credit card purchases, and a wealth of other personal data. Whether searching for tax evaders or terrorists, government agencies continuously have new tools at their disposal to monitor the communications and activities of suspects. As these agencies respond to new and dangerous cyber-threats, are they violating personal freedoms in an effort to keep society safe?In this module, you will examine the degree to which cybersurveillance violates civil rights.Learning Objectives
Analyze monitoring and regulating of Internet hate sites
Evaluate whether monitoring and regulating Internet hate sites infringes upon freedom of speech
Analyze violation of civil rights from cyber-surveillance
Evaluate the use and necessity of surveillance to tackle cybercrime
Analyze the influence of surveillance on citizens’ trusts of states
Analyze challenges related to regulating privacy-enhancing technologies
Learning ResourcesRequired ReadingsTaylor, R. W., Fritsch, E. J., Saylor, M., R. & Tafoya, W. L. (2019). Cyber crime and cyber terrorism (4th ed.). Pearson.
Chapter 9, “Anarchy and Hate on the World Wide Web” (pp. 246-267)
Awan, I. (2016). Islamophobia on social media: A qualitative analysis of the Facebook’s walls of hate. International Journal of Cyber Criminology, 10(1), 1-20.Balica, R. (2017). The criminalization of online hate speech: It’s complicated. Contemporary Readings in Law and Social Justice, 9(2), 184-190.Burnap, P., & Williams, M. L. (2016). Us and them: Identifying cyber hate on twitter across multiple protected characteristics. EPJ Data Science, 5(1), 1-15.Hanzelka, J., & Schmidt, I. (2017). Dynamics of cyber hate in social media: A comparative analysis of anti-Muslim movements in the Czech republic and Germany. International Journal of Cyber Criminology, 11(1), 143-160.Margulies, P. (2017). Global cybersecurity, surveillance, and privacy: The obama Administration’s conflicted legacy. Indiana Journal of Global Legal Studies, 24(2), 459-495.Mason, G., & Czapski, N. (2017). Regulating cyber-racism. Melbourne University Law Review, 41(1), 284-340.Trottier, D. (2017). Digital vigilantism as weaponisation of visibility. Philosophy & Technology, 30(1), 55-72.Urban, J. (2018). What is the eye in the sky actually looking at and who is controlling it? An international comparative analysis on how to fill the cybersecurity and privacy gaps to strengthen existing U.S. drone laws. Federal Communications Law Journal, 70(1), 1-76.Zajko, M. (2018). Security against surveillance: IT security as resistance to pervasive surveillance. Surveillance & Society, 16(1), 39-52.International Network Against Cyber Hate. (2018). INACH. Retrieved from http://www.inach.netModule 4: Cyber-Stalking, Crime Mapping, and Legislation (Weeks 9-11)Our technological powers increase, but the side effects and potential hazards also escalate.
—Alvin Toffler, Future ShockEven the most skilled investigators, prosecutors, and legislators of the 21st century face challenges in addressing new and emerging uses of technology for criminal behavior. Advancements in technologies have created a virtual playground for criminals. How can laws and courts keep up with the sheer volume and complexity of today’s cybercrimes? Social networking sites, proxy servers, and mobile devices encompass complex technical issues and related criminal behavior that legislation must address.In this module, you examine ramifications and impacts of legislation being unable to keep pace with the use of technology in criminal behavior. You also submit your Final Project.Learning Objectives
Evaluate effectiveness of cyber-stalking laws for protecting victims
Evaluate effectiveness of cyber-stalking laws for deterring offenders
Analyze limitations in cyber-stalking legislation
Justify interrogation based on crime mapping
Analyze evolution of cybercrimes
Analyze influence of technology on the evolution of cybercrimes
Analyze ramifications of legislation being unable to keep pace with emerging uses of technology for criminal behavior
Analyze impacts on society of legislation being unable to keep pace with emerging uses of technology for criminal behavior
Analyze cybercrime legislation
Learning ResourcesRequired ReadingsTaylor, R. W., Fritsch, E. J., Saylor, M., R. & Tafoya, W. L. (2019). Cyber crime and cyber terrorism (4th ed.). Pearson.
Chapter 8, “Sex Crimes, Victimization, and Obscenity” (pp. 190-238)
Chapter 10, “Digital Laws and Legislation” (pp. 270-288)
Daras, N. J., & Alexopoulos, A. (2017). Mathematical description of cyber-attacks and proactive defences. Journal of Applied Mathematics and Bioinformatics, 7(1), 71-142.Dardis, C. M., Strauss, C. V., & Gidycz, C. A. (2018). The psychological toll of unwanted pursuit behaviors and intimate partner violence on undergraduate women: A dominance analysis. Psychology of Violence. doi:10.1037/vio0000189.DeMatteo, D., Wagage, S., & Fairfax-Columbo, J. (2017). Cyberstalking: Are we on the same (web)page? A comparison of statutes, case law, and public perception. Journal of Aggression, Conflict and Peace Research, 9(2), 83-94.Goyal, N., & Goyal, D. (2017). Cyber crime in the society: Security issues, preventions and challenges. Research Journal of Engineering and Technology, 8(2), 73-80.Kańciak, A. (2016). An analysis of the legal systems and mechanisms introduced in the European Union in the fight against cyberspace threats 1. Internal Security, 8(2), 195-224.Levi, M. (2017). Assessing the trends, scale and nature of economic cybercrimes: Overview and issues. Crime, Law and Social Change, 67(1), 3-20.Mandala, M. (2016). Policing cybercrime and cyberterror. Security Journal, 29(3), e13-e15.Marcum, C. D., Higgins, G. E., & Nicholson, J. (2017). I’m watching you: Cyberstalking behaviors of university students in romantic relationships. American Journal of Criminal Justice, 42(2), 373-388.McQuade, B. I. (2016). Police and the post-9/11 surveillance surge: “technological dramas” in “the bureaucratic field.” Surveillance & Society, 14(1), 1-19.Mittal, S., & Sharma, P. (2017). Enough law of horses and elephants debated…Let’s discuss the cyber law seriously. International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science, 8(5), 1343-1348.Ngo, F., & Jaishankar, K. (2017). Commemorating a decade in existence of the international journal of cyber criminology: A research agenda to advance the scholarship on cyber crime. International Journal of Cyber Criminology, 11(1), 1-9.Spitzberg, B. H. (2017). Acknowledgment of unwanted pursuit, threats, assault, and stalking in a college population. Psychology of Violence, 7(2), 265-275.Working to Halt Online Abuse. (2016). US laws. Retrieved from http://www.haltabuse.org/resources/lawsRequired MediaTechnological Solutions and 21st-Century Crime: Crime Mapping. An animated description of crime mapping. This includes a case study where a woman is incorrectly suspected of prostitution in an area with higher incidents of this crime. This animation video can be used as a starter for student consideration of legal issues involving crime mapping. (2m)Week 9 Discussion: Cyber-Stalking LegislationIn 1990, California became the first state in the United States to enact stalking legislation. Currently, all 50 states and the federal government have statutes that attempt to address this type of crime. However, many of these statutes fail to address stalking via the Internet, and many cyber-stalking crimes go unprosecuted. In 1999, California also became the first state to enact cyber-stalking legislation. As states attempt to enact new legislation related to cyber-stalking, many issues arise due to potential conflicts with civil rights, such as freedom of speech and right to privacy.For this Discussion, refer to the web resource “U.S. Laws” in the Learning Resources to research any cyber-stalking laws within your state of residence. If you do not reside in the United States, research cyber-stalking laws in your country of residence. Think about the degree to which these laws are effective for protecting victims and deterring offenders. Then consider any limitations that exist in current legislation related to cyber-stalking.Post by Day 4 of Week 9A description of any cyber-stalking laws in your state (or country of residence if you live outside the United States). Then explain whether or not the laws you identified are effective for protecting victims and deterring offenders. Finally, explain any limitations that exist in current legislation related to cyber-stalking.Respond by Day 6 of Week 9 to least two of your colleagues’ postsChoose a colleague who is from a different state or country than you. Expand on his or her post by offering differences or similarities between laws and discussing whether they might be beneficial to victims or deter offenders.Return to this Discussion in a few days to read the responses to your initial posting. Note what you have learned and/or any insights you have gained as a result of reading the comments your colleagues made.Submission and Grading InformationGrading CriteriaTo access your rubric:Week 9 Discussion RubricPost by Day 4 of Week 9 and Respond by Day 6 of Week 9To Participate in this Discussion:Week 9 DiscussionWeek 10 Discussion: Crime Mapping and Geographic ProfilingCrime maps display data on offenses, including the type of crime, and the locations and times the offenses occurred. One application of crime mapping is geographic profiling, a technique that uses crime maps to identify geographic areas where serial offenders are likely to reside or frequent. Suspects may be “prioritized” depending on how close they live to a high-crime area. Geographic profiling has had varying degrees of success. As with all areas of criminal profiling, there are questions about accuracy, usefulness, and biases inherent in geographic profiling. Critics say that geographic factors should be combined with a number of other contributing situational and behavioral factors beyond simply using a suspect’s location on a map.For this Discussion, review the media piece “Crime Mapping.” Consider whether or not the interrogation of the woman in the media piece was justified based on the information presented from the crime mapping.Post by Day 4 of Week 10Your position on whether or not the interrogation of the woman in the media piece was justified based on the information presented from the crime mapping. Justify your response with references to the literature and Learning Resources.Respond by Day 6 of Week 10 to least two of your colleagues’ postsTry to choose a colleague who chose a different stance than you. Expand on his or her post by offering whether you can see his or her point of view, even if you disagree. Be respectful in your response. If your colleagues have not chosen a different stance, choose a colleague who has not been responded to or who has few responses to which you can add new insights.Return to this Discussion in a few days to read the responses to your initial posting. Note what you have learned and/or any insights you have gained as a result of reading the comments your colleagues made.Submission and Grading InformationGrading CriteriaTo access your rubric:Week 10 Discussion RubricPost by Day 4 of Week 10 and Respond by Day 6 of Week 10To Participate in this Discussion:Week 10 DiscussionWeek 10 Assignment: Final ProjectTechnology has changed lives in fundamental and positive ways. It also has opened the door to new types of cybercrime, which can run the gamut from identity theft to organizing terrorist plots. As each new type of crime comes to light, usually through a case that draws national attention, law enforcement and government entities respond using increasingly sophisticated surveillance technology. Law enforcement’s use of technology to prevent and combat cybercrime has prompted even greater “advances” in criminal activity with the use of encryption, anonymizers, and proxy servers.For the Final Project, you will provide an in-depth analysis of a cybercrime. You will select a cybercrime to use for the Final Project. You will then review how this type of crime evolved, how it gained national attention, and how it was influenced by technology. As you continue your analysis of the cybercrime, examine legislation, penalties, and how law enforcement might prevent and address the cybercrime.The Assignment:Using the Walden Writing Center APA Course Paper Template, write a 10- to 12-page paper (not counting the title page and References page) that includes the following elements:Introduction:
Describe the type of cybercrime you selected.
Explain the evolution of the cybercrime, including when the cybercrime gained national attention and any circumstances or cases that might have prompted the national attention.
Explain how technology has influenced the evolution of the cybercrime.
Body:
Describe legislation related to the cybercrime.
Explain limitations and/or gaps related to the legislation.
Explain penalties in your state or country of residence for engaging in the cybercrime.
Explain the degree to which the penalties you identified are adequate for penalizing the offender.
Explain challenges law enforcement might face in efforts to prevent and address the cybercrime.
Conclusion:
Explain how law enforcement might utilize technological solutions to prevent and address the cybercrime.
Explain how law enforcement might utilize technology to benefit society and effect social change.
Support your Assignment with specific references to all resources used in its preparation. You are to provide a reference list for all resources, including those in the Learning Resources for this course.Submit by Day 7 of Week 10Submission and Grading InformationTo submit your completed Assignment for review and grading, do the following:
Please save your Assignment using the naming convention.
“WK10Assgn+lastname+firstinitial.(extension)” as the name.
Click the Week 10 Assignment Rubric to review the Grading Criteria for the Assignment.
Click the Week 10 Assignment link. You will also be able to “View Rubric” for grading
criteria from this area.
Next, from the Attach File area, click the Browse My Computer button. Find the document
you saved as “WK10Assgn+lastname+firstinitial.(extension)” and click Open.
If applicable: From the Plagiarism Tools area, click the checkbox for I agree to submit my
paper(s) to the Global Reference Database.
Click the Submit button to complete your submission.
Grading CriteriaTo access your rubric:Week 10 Final Project Assignment RubricCheck Your Assignment Draft for AuthenticityTo check your Assignment draft for authenticity:Submit your Week 10 Final Project Assignment draft and review the originality report.Submit Your Assignment by Day 7 of Week 10To submit your Assignment:Week 10 Final Project AssignmentWeek 11 Discussion: Cybercrime LegislationA gap exists between current trends in cybercrime and the government’s response via legislation and regulations. In the face of jurisdictional issues, constitutional issues, and a complex maze of federal and local statutes, it is difficult to identify a cohesive and efficient legal response to the ever-evolving nature of computer-related crimes. Rapidly advancing technology and its use in criminal behavior makes it difficult for legislation to keep pace in efforts to prevent and address cybercrime. There is a pressing need to implement strategies to better prepare for emerging trends in crime and to coordinate with a variety of business, social, and educational institutions; all levels of government; and other nations around the world.For this Discussion, consider the ramifications of legislation being unable to keep pace with emerging uses of technology for criminal behavior.Post by Day 4 of Week 11 A description of two possible ramifications of legislation being unable to keep pace with emerging uses of technology for criminal behavior. Then provide possible ways to address each ramification. Finally, explain any impacts on society of legislation being unable to keep pace with emerging uses of technology for criminal behavior.Respond by Day 6 of Week 11 to least two of your colleagues’ postsChoose a colleague who chose different ramifications than you. Expand on his or her post by offering other possible ways to address the ramifications.Return to this Discussion in a few days to read the responses to your initial posting. Note what you have learned and/or any insights you have gained as a result of reading the comments your colleagues made.Submission and Grading InformationGrading CriteriaTo access your rubric:Week 11 Discussion RubricPost by Day 4 of Week 11 and Respond by Day 6 of Week 11To Participate in this Discussion:Week 11 DiscussionCongratulations
Requirements: 1 page disscussion 3 or more pages assignments